Twitter  Quartz found an unlikely inspiration for its relaunched homepage: The email newsletter. nie.mn/1AQXuxD  
Nieman Journalism Lab
Pushing to the future of journalism — A project of the Nieman Foundation at Harvard
pepes-pizza-new-haven-cc

Tracing the links between civic engagement and the revival of local journalism

Serving the public isn’t enough for journalism, the Northeastern University professor says. His new book The Wired City taught him that the public first has to be created, nurtured, and given a voice.
Email

pepes-pizza-new-haven-cc

Editor’s note: Our friend Dan Kennedy has a new book out, and it’s right up Nieman Lab’s alley. The Wired City: Reimagining Journalism and Civic Life in the Post-Newspaper Age takes as its subject local journalism in cities where new online outlets — some for-profit, some not — have set up shop. His primary focus is New Haven, Connecticut, where the New Haven Independent has been one of the new world’s biggest successes.

In this piece, Dan examines the main lessons he took from reporting and writing the book, which you should read. We’ll have an excerpt from the book and a more thorough interview with Dan later this week.

dan-kennedy-the-wired-cityThe star attraction was supposed to be Diane Ravitch, a prominent critic of education reform. But the real stars were the audience members themselves.

I had driven to New Haven on this day in late November 2010 to see if Paul Bass, the founder and editor of the New Haven Independent, could pull off an audacious experiment in civic engagement. The Independent, a nonprofit online-only news organization, is the principal subject of my new book, The Wired City. The subtitle — Reimagining Journalism and Civic Life in the Post-Newspaper Age — reflects my belief that news can’t survive without public participation. What we got that night was full immersion.

Stage right, Ravitch sat with 11 other people — principals, teachers, school officials, a high school student, a board of education member, and the like. Stage left, a half-dozen media folks and elected officials, including Mayor John DeStefano, were liveblogging the event. The forum was webcast on television and radio, as well as on the websites of the Independent and the New Haven Register, the city’s daily newspaper. Viewers at home — and, for that matter, those in the auditorium who had laptops — were able to engage in a real-time, online conversation with the livebloggers. Afterwards, readers posted a total of 53 comments to the two stories the Independent published (here and here). The archived video was posted as well. Finally, in a touch that seemed almost old-fashioned, the 200 or so people who attended were invited to line up at two microphones during an extended question-and-answer period.

Among the myriad crises facing journalism, perhaps none is more vexing than civic illiteracy. Starting in the 1990s, leading thinkers such as New York University’s Jay Rosen began sketching out ways for news organizations to listen to their audience’s concerns and to shape their coverage accordingly. This “public journalism” movement, as it became known, fizzled as newsroom budget cuts and criticism from traditional journalists took their toll.

But if the audience doesn’t care about the public-interest aspects of journalism, then there really isn’t much hope for a revival. Over the years, newspaper publishers have responded to the decline of civic life by loading up on celebrity gossip and so-called news you can use, such as personal finance and cooking tips. It’s a losing game, because there are always going to be better sources of such information than the local newspaper.

More than a dozen years ago, the Harvard scholar Robert Putnam, in his classic book Bowling Alone, found that people who were engaged in civic life — voting in local elections, taking part in volunteer activities, attending religious services or participating in any number of other activities — were also more likely to read newspapers. “Newspaper readers,” he wrote, “are machers and schmoozers.

Trouble is, Putnam’s machers and schmoozers were aging even then. And so it is up to news organizations not merely to serve the public, but to nurture and educate the public so that it is engaged with civic life, and thus with the fundamental purpose of journalism.

C.W. Anderson, in his book Rebuilding the News: Metropolitan Journalism in the Digital Age, writes that “journalists [report] the news in order to call a particular form of public into being.” Along similar lines, I argue in The Wired City that creating a public is at least as important as reporting on its behalf. No longer can it be taken for granted that there is a public ready to engage with news about last night’s city council meeting, a speech by the mayor or plans by a developer to tear down a neighborhood landmark and replace it with yet another convenience store.

Howard Owens, the publisher of The Batavian, a for-profit site in western New York that I also write about in my book, once put it this way:

…local community news is currently only a niche product. Entrepreneurs need to think about not only “how am I going to appeal to the people who care now,” but “how am I going to get more people to care about their community so I can grow my audience?”

In researching The Wired City, I learned that the readership for the New Haven Independent comprises a wide swath — elected officials, city employees (especially police officers and teachers), leaders and activists in the African-American community, dedicated localists, and members of what struck me as a surprisingly large and politically aware group of bicycling advocates.

Though the Independent’s audience is not as large as that of the New Haven Register, its concentration inside the city limits and its popularity among opinion leaders — “the grassroots and grasstops circles,” as Michael Morand, an associate vice president at Yale, described it to me in an interview — gives the site outsize influence. Indeed, it was the Independent’s relentless coverage of a controversy over the video-recording of police actions by members of the public that led to a clarification from the police chief that such recording was legal. It also led to mandatory training for all officers.

Thus what we see in New Haven, in Batavia, and in other places where news organizations are trying new methods of bridging the divide between journalism and the public is a revival of the ideas Jay Rosen and others first began championing two decades ago. “What we today call ‘engagement’ was a central feature of many civic-journalism experiments, but in a way we were working with very crude tools then,” Rosen told me in 2011. “It’s almost like we were trying to do civic engagement with heavy machinery instead of the infinitely lighter and cheaper tools we have now.”

The “wired city” that I argue the New Haven Independent brought into being is a community built around local news, empowered by the “lighter and cheaper tools” that have become available during the past decade and a half. Through events like the Diane Ravitch forum, through carefully (if not perfectly) curated user comments, and through the now-taken-for-granted convenience of always being just a few clicks away, the Independent has succeeded not so much as an entity unto itself but as the hub of a civic ecosystem.

As Clay Shirky has observed, with local newspapers slowly fading away, no single alternative will replace what they once provided. We need a variety of experiments — for-profit, nonprofit, cooperative ownership and voluntary efforts. The challenge all of them face is that serving the public is no longer enough. Rather, the public they serve must first be assembled — and given a voice.

Photo of the line at New Haven pizza institution Pepe’s by eschipul used under a Creative Commons license.

                                   
What to read next
Quartz_homepage
Joseph Lichterman    Aug. 26, 2014
Previously proudly without a homepage, the business site is trying to shift its email success to the web to build loyalty.
  • dankennedy

    Nice picture! I’ve stood in that line.

  • King-Stanley-Krauter

    If reporters would start communicating like teachers instead of entertainers, maybe then they could “nuture and educate the public so it is engaged with civic life.” Writing about today’s most important facts is exciting but it is also turning information into white noise. Which why the pre-recession journalism on subprime mortgages and the housing bubble was ignored by politicians and voters. Reporters should publish an annual one week revew on the year’s most important facts like a teacher would for a summer class of students who flunked their regular class. Ths annual democracy for dummies class could work like a town hall meeting for an entire nation via state and local newspapers. This one week review could also be repackaged as a booklet or paperback book so voters could buy a photographic memory of what their government has done and not done. Then the next Attorney General might not be willing to say that some banks are too big to prosecute. I have many more idea for making the week both efffective and profitable but no one in the news media seems to be interested in communicating like a teacher instead of an entertainer. Everyone seems to think that my proposal is the equivalent of getting married. A decision that has too many times changed sex into a job instead of an adventure. Woud you please tell me why reporters don’t want to be more effective?

  • http://www.Chagora.com CulturalEngineer

    I believe a network offering a microtransaction capability in politics serves as the anchor for needed civic capabilities on both the local and national level… and additionally offers a needed path to empowered independent journalism.

    The ability to click a button in an email and lobby Congress with 25 cents may not do much. But if you can do that together with millions of others it changes everything.

    The political microtransaction (an unrecognized fundamental of political lobbying) via a neutral network catalyzes associated civic functions and a more engaged citizen community…

    This transaction’s impact is felt at large scales and completely alters the fundraising landscape….

    And the network providing it can become a root for localized services for civic engagement.

    This is an institution waiting to be born.
    http://culturalengineer.blogspot.com/2008/10/capability-enables-responsibility.html

    Patent #7,870,067 granted January 11, 2011
    demo http://www.chagora.com

    Represented by Perkins Coie (http://www.perkinscoie.com/)

    Scaling Influence: Campaign Finance, Small Money and Large Numbers
    http://culturalengineer.blogspot.com/2013/05/scaling-influence-campaign-finance.html

    Developed for its utility in lobbying, the microtransaction also has game changing applications in journalism & charity

  • pseudonymous.ly

    Now I’m imagining opt-in ad funded public schools.